Rizpah’s care for the bodies of Saul’s descendants. (10-14): According to Deut. 21: 22 & 23, the bodies of those who are hung should be buried on the same day, because they are cursed. But, Rizpah kept them from burying until rain come and bless the nation from draught.
V. 10: Did not allow the birds of the air to rest on them… means she did not want their bodies disgraced.
V. 11: David went and took the bones of Saul, and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabesh Gilead…… Through the act of kindess by Rizbah, David was reminded of the act of kindness to Saul by the people of Jabesh Gilead. And now, he wanted to do the kindness act to Saul, Jonathan and to Saul’s household. So he brought the bones and buried them at the tomb of Saul’s father.
Battles with the Philistines. (15-22)
Parallel passage is 1 Chronicles 20:4-8. These events seem to have taken place towards the end of David’s reign. David fainted, but he did not flee, and God sent help in the time of need. In short, it is understood that there were 5 giants in Gath, the philistine city, and they were killed by David (Goliath) and his men.
2 Samuel 22:
Song of Praise for God’s deliverance.We find the parallel in Psalm 18. This song of David was adapted in Israelite’s worship with some spelling changes as Hebrew worship uses standard simple spelling.
V. 1: …delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. This clearly indicates that this song is not about a particular war and one particular enemy. David, here, is reflecting at the power and work of God throughout his life and kingship. This also teaches us that we will never be delivered from all enemies and troubles until we die (2 Timothy 4:18)
Vs. 5& 6: Sheol… sheol is a place of the dead. Even though David did not die, he was facing death.
V. 7: After mentioning his troubles and afflictions, now David describes the response of God. He talks about the attentive hearing by God. Here temple means the heavenly abode of God.
V. 8-16: The LORD’s sudden appearance to help David. In this metaphor, David talks about the extraordinary effect of the Prayer of God’s anointed person, especially God’s effect over heaven and earth.
V. 35:…my arm can bend a bow of bronze.. David is talking from verse 35 until verse 45, about what God caused him to do.
Vs. 49-51: delivers me from my enemies… In these verses, David makes a reference to chapter 7 where we read the peace that God granted to David.
2 Samuel 23:
David’s last words. (1-7)
These words of David are very worthy of regard. Let those who have had long experience of God’s goodness, and the pleasantness of heavenly wisdom, when they come to finish their course, bear their testimony to the truth of the promise. David avows his Divine inspiration, that the Spirit of God spoke through him. He, and other holy men, spoke and wrote as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. In many things he had his own neglect and wrong conduct to blame. But David comforted himself that the Lord had made with him an everlasting covenant. By this, he principally intended the covenant of mercy and peace, which the Lord made with him as a sinner, who believed in the promised Saviour, who embraced the promised blessing, who yielded up himself to the Lord, to be his redeemed servant. Believers shall forever enjoy covenant blessings; and God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, shall be forever glorified in their salvation. Thus pardon, righteousness, grace, and eternal life, are secured as the gift of God through Jesus Christ. – Mathew Henry Commentary
The “last words of David” are a song praising God for establishing his house as the ruler; the song reflects back to God’s promise in 7:8–19. Like the wisdom psalms, it also contrasts the just ruler and worthless men. This psalm uses two different metaphors. One compares the righteous ruler to the morning light at sunrise and the shafts of sunshine on the grass after rain; the other compares worthless men to uprooted thorns. – ESV Study Bible