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David’s last words. (1-7)

These words of David are very worthy of regard. Let those who have had long experience of God’s goodness, and the pleasantness of heavenly wisdom, when they come to finish their course, bear their testimony to the truth of the promise. David avows his Divine inspiration, that the Spirit of God spoke through him. He, and other holy men, spoke and wrote as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. In many things he had his own neglect and wrong conduct to blame. But David comforted himself that the Lord had made with him an everlasting covenant. By this, he principally intended the covenant of mercy and peace, which the Lord made with him as a sinner, who believed in the promised Saviour, who embraced the promised blessing, who yielded up himself to the Lord, to be his redeemed servant. Believers shall forever enjoy covenant blessings; and God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, shall be forever glorified in their salvation. Thus pardon, righteousness, grace, and eternal life, are secured as the gift of God through Jesus Christ. – Mathew Henry Commentary

The “last words of David” are a song praising God for establishing his house as the ruler; the song reflects back to God’s promise in 7:8–19. Like the wisdom psalms, it also contrasts the just ruler and worthless men. This psalm uses two different metaphors. One compares the righteous ruler to the morning light at sunrise and the shafts of sunshine on the grass after rain; the other compares worthless men to uprooted thorns. – ESV Study Bible

Vs. 2-4: The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me…(v.2) David is taking the prophet’s role presenting the future king from his lineage who would rule in justice, in the feat of God (v.3), and like the light of the morning (v.4). The prophetic role of David is required not to tell the qualities of a king, but to talk about a king who would come after centuries. In this passage David recognizes Christ, and in Rev. 22:16, Jesus recognizes David by saying, “I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star.”

David’s mighty men. (8-39):Parallel passage is 1 Chronicles 11:10–47 

We have a list of the elite warriors of David’s personal bodyguard and special royal forces.

Vs. 13-17 David poured the water of Jerusalem well out to the LORD.

V. 13: …the cave of Adullam…: This incident might have happened while David was hiding from Saul or during a war against Philistines.

David once earnestly longed for the water at the well of Bethlehem. It seems to be an instance of weakness. He was thirsty; with the water of that well he had often refreshed himself when a youth, and it was without due thought that he desired it. Were his valiant men so forward to expose themselves, upon the least hint of their prince’s mind, and so eager to please him,…? But David poured out the water as a drink-offering to the Lord. Thus he would cross his own foolish fancy, and punish himself for indulging it, and show that he had sober thoughts to correct his rash ones, and knew how to deny himself. Did David look upon that water as very precious which was got at the hazard of these men’s blood, and shall not we much more value those benefits for purchasing which our blessed Saviour shed his blood? Let all beware of neglecting so great salvation. –Mathew Henry Commentary

V. 15: Oh that someone would give me a drink of the water from the well of Bethlehem…David, in fact, did not command them to bring water from his Childhood well. It was his desire; but his men fulfilled his desire. David did not realize that the people would act on his words.

This episode shows the love that his men had for their leader and his regard for them. – ESV Study Bible.

Vs. 16 -17: …but poured it out to the LORD…: David did not pour it to be waste. Also, he did not do that not to disregard his men who risked their lives to bring the water. It is because; David compared the water to the blood and life of his mighty men.

2 Samuel 24:

Parallel passage is 1 Chronicles 21.

David numbers the people. (1-9):

V. 1: … Again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go, number Israel and Judah.” 

1 Chronicles 21:1 Then, Satan stood against Israel and incited David to number Israel.

Who did it… God or Satan? Also read Gen. 50:18–21; 1 Sam. 16:14; Mark 14:21; Acts 2:23; 4:28; 18:9–11; 27:30; 2 Tim. 2:10.