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Solomon’s marriage. (1-4):
He that loved the Lord, should, for his sake, have fixed his love upon one of the Lord’s people.
V.1 treaty with Pharaoh… The treaty is also translated as Marriage alliance. Dt. 17:16 strictly warns Israelites not to return to Egypt. Dt. 7:3 also talks about the same thing connecting to the warning that such marriages will lead them to serve other gods.
V.2 there was no house built for the name of the LORD… Since there was no Temple of the LORD to sacrifice, people offered sacrifices at the altars in high places.
V.3 Solomon loved the LORD,…he sacrificed…at the high places… Here King Solomon is presented as a man with divided heart. On one hand he loved the LORD and on the other hand he failed to keep the law of Moses whole heartedly as David did.
V. 4…And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there, Most probably this was the place where they had the Moses’ Tabernacle and the bronze altar. However, Solomon sacrificing at this altar was not considered as idolatrous, but it was when he build exclusive temples for his wives’ pagan gods.
His vision, His prayer for wisdom. (5-15):
Solomon’s dream was not a common one. While his bodily powers were locked up in sleep, the powers of his soul were strengthened; he was enabled to receive the Divine vision, and to make a suitable choice. Having a humble sense of his own wants and weakness, he pleads, Lord, I am but a little child. The more wise and considerate men are, the better acquainted they are with their own weakness, and the more jealous of themselves. Solomon begs of God to give him wisdom. We must pray for it, ( James 1:5 ) , that it may help us in our particular calling, and the various occasions we have. … The way to get spiritual blessings, is to wrestle with God in prayer for them. – Mathew Henry concise commentary.
V.7 I am but a little child. I do not know lhow to go out or come in. … This doesn’t mean that he is a child physically. He humbles himself and realizes his weakness. He lacked understanding mind to discern between good and evil.
V.12… given you a wise and understanding heart… This wisdom of Solomon is uniquely from God.
V.13 also given you what you have not asked for… God added to Solomon with what he did not ask for, that are long life, and riches.
V.14 And if you will walk in my ways,…, then I will lengthen your days.” … The blessing of long life is conditional.
The judgment of Solomon. (16-28):
This is a great attestation for the wisdom of God. The case was very sensitive and legally unresolvable due to lack of witnesses and evidences. This is the first test God-given wisdom to Solomon.
1 Kings 4
Solomon’s court. (1-19)
Vs.1-6 his officials… We have the list of chief officers of his administration here.
In the choice of the great officers of Solomon’s court, no doubt, his wisdom appeared. Several are the same that were in his father’s time. A plan was settled by which no part of the country was exhausted to supply his court, though each sent its portion. – Mathew Henry Commentary.
V. 2… Azariah, the son of Zadok… Azariah has said to be the priest instead of Zadok. We don’t have any valid reason for not having Zadok as the chief priest. In fact Azariah is the grandson of Zadok.
V. 3… Recorders/secretaries/ministries are the various translations for the managerial officers who were appointed by Solomon.