Amos 1:

V. 1…Amos… means Burden-Bearer. …sheepbreeders… Shepherds were at the lower in the social order. But God chose Amos to be His prophet against the wealthy and perverted Israel. …two years before the earthquake… This earthquake is mentioned also by Prophet Zechariah (Zech. 14:5). This signifies the genuine historicity of this book.

V. 2…Zion…and…Jerusalem… Though Israel rejected Jerusalem as the only place of worship, God chose to speak His words of Judgement for Israel from the Jerusalem in the southern kingdom. …Carmel… in the Northern Kingdom is important as God proved His supremacy over Baal. …Roars… Amos says in 3:8 that the LION (the LORD) has roared (from Judah). Psalm 29 talks about the power of the voice of the LORD.

7 Nations: 1:3 – 2:5: Judgments on Israel’s Neighbors:

At this time the southeastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea (now called Palestine) was inhabited by seven other small nations besides Israel. All of them were in danger because ofAssyria’s push toward Egypt. But Amos showed that what was about to befall them would not come from Assyria but from the Creator of all the earth who had revealed himself to Israel in particular. The culpability of these nations demonstrates the biblical principle that one is accountable for what one knows. Thus the first six were judged for sins of common cruelty and brutality, while Judah was judged for failure to keep the Torah (God’s covenant instruction). These judgments by God on Israel’s Gentile neighbors are similar to pronouncements of judgment on various non-Jewish nations in the writings of other prophets (see chart; cf. Genesis 19). They are a reminder that God’s moral standards as revealed in the Bible are not merely for Jewish people, or for Jews and Christians in the NT period, but that God holds all people and all nations and cultures accountable to his moral standards, whether they have them in written form or simply in their hearts and consciences (see also Rom. 1:18–32; 2:14–15; and note on Amos 2:1–3). – ESV Study Bible

Damascus, Syria (3-5): Syria was both major partner and rival with the northern kingdom.
Three transgressions…and for fourm(V.3)… This is both poetical and literary method.
He uses a literary method known as graduated numbers or numerical parallelism….This numerical system suggests the meaning, “for enough transgressions….for more than enough.” Similar use of graduated numerals are found in Proverbs 6:16, 30:15,18, 21,29; and Micah 5:5. – Spirit filled Bible.

Damascus is the capital of the city-state of Aram, which is also known as Syria. Damascus had a cruel military action against Israelite inhabitants of Gilead, the eastern territory of Jordan. God will destroy the house of Hazael and palace of Ben-Hadad with fire. Remove the security of the city, expel the people from the city.

Gaza (Philistine) 6-8: Gaza was the one of five major cities of the Philistines. The other cities mentioned in verse 8 are Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Elron. Gad was not mentioned here, but included in the ….remnant of the Philistines… Here also, the judgment is removing the king, removing security of the cities, destruction of the palaces with fire.

Tyre 9 & 10: Tyre was the great port city located on the Mediterranean coast, north of Israel. This city represents the nation of Phoenicia. …did not remember the covenant of brotherhood… This may refer to the covenant that was established between King Solomon and King Hiram of Tyre (1 Kings 5:12). There were other covenants also. Walls and palaces would be burnt down by the fire of the LORD.

Edom 11 & 12: Edom (descended from Esau) was located on south and sourth east of the southern Kingdom around the southern end of the Dead Sea. The anger of the LORD was upon Edom because they waged war against Israelites (decedents of Esau’s brother) during their journey in the wilderness. It’s places will be destroyed by fire.

Ammonites 13-15: They were located east of River Jordon between Syria and Moab. They had constant conflict with Reuben and Gad tribes to extend their territory in order to gain control over the Region of Gilead. They were brutal even for pregnant women. The capital city of Rabbah will be destroyed, it’s walls in fire, king and princes will be exiled.

Amos 2:

Moab (1-3): Moab and Ammon were descendants of Lot through his daughters (Gen 19). Moab sin in this passage was against neither Israel nor Judah, but against Edom. This judgment talks about the UNIVERSAL JUSTICE of God and not simply based on ethnicity.

Judgement on Judah (4 & 5): This judgment is not about their atrocity against any nation or people, but for breach of covenant (Law) of YAHWEH. …despised the law… They have disregarded, rejected, considered it to be unimportant or even worthless.. …lies… The lies are the ungodly ways and false gods or something that was god. You don’t see much wrong in it; but eventually it will lead us in to sin. The punishment is destruction of Jerusalem by fire, which was fulfilled in the year of 587 B.C. through Babylonian invasion.

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