A. Amos travelled by the call of God from Judah to prophecy against Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II.
B. He prophesized for two years between 760 & 750 B.C.
C. He prophesized for 8 nations. Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Judah, & Israel.
D. Preached judgement on
1. Chosen people,
2. Unresponsive people,
3. Unrepentant people.
E. He had 5 addresses.
1. Address 1: Declaration of “Israel’s guilty before God – 2:6-16,
2. Address 2: Oracle of Warning – Chapter 3,
3. Address 3: Oracle of Doom – Chapter 4,
4. Address 4: Oracle of Entreaty (Appeal-Lament for Israel) – Chapter 5:1-17
5. Oracle of Woe – the Day of the LORD – Chapter 5:18-6:14.
(3 Categories of sin).
a. Sin of manipulative, paganized religion – no regard for justice and righteousness.
b. Sin of Complacency,
c. Sin of self-Indulgence.
F. 5 Visions of judgments to come upon Israel (Chapters 7-9).
1. Vision of Locust swarms (7:1-3) – God relents in this vision after Amos’ intercession.
2. Vision of Consuming fire (7:4-6), – God relents for the second time after Amos’ intercession.
3. Vision of the Plumb line (7:7-17) – Judged by the same law which it was built. God unrelents.
4. Vision of the Basket of Summer fruit (8:1-14) – Judgment will happen swiftly unlike HIS patience.
5. Vision of the LORD beside the altar (9:1-10) – Judgement start at religious headquarters. Man’s inability to
escape the wrath.
G. Restoration of Israel – Remnant of God will be brought back into the land. Contains Prophecy on Jesus and the End time restoration.
Amos stresses that righteousness and justice are essential to a healthy society. Religion is more than observing feast days and holding sacred assemblies; true religion demands righteous living. The way a man treats his neighbor reveals his relationship with God. Jesus said the greatest commandment is to love God. The second is to love our neighbor as ourselves. This is the message of Amos. This is the message needed today. We also are living in a prosperous, materialistic society. Because we are prosperous, we may also deceive ourselves into believing that we have God’s blessings on us. The tendency to give God material goods and believe we have satisfied Him is ever with us. Material prosperity often leads to religious and moral corruption. Observation of external rites is not enough. God demands our obedience – a heartfelt attitude that issues in action to meet the needs of our fellow human beings. – Spirit filled life Bible.
Book of Hosea
About the Author: The name Hosea means “Salvation” or “Deliverance.” His call was to live out the message to his people by marrying a woman who would be unfaithful to him. Though he was called for a difficult ministry, his sensitivity towards the sinful condition of the people of Israel and his sensitivity towards the loving heart of God enabled him for this ministry.
Date: As it was common for the OT prophets to date their ministries in connection with the reigning kings during their ministry, Hosea also dating it to the Judean kings Uzziah (767-740), Jotham (740-732), Ahaz (732-716), and Hezekiah (716-687) and to the Israelite king Jeroboam II (782-753).
|782||Jeroboam II (until 753)|
|Hezekiah (until 687)||716|
During these years Hosea would have covered about 40 years of public life between 755-715. Hosea ministered during the latter half of the 8th century BC, period that was most troublesome and time of trial in the history of Israel prior to their captivity in 722.
It should be noted that Hosea started his ministry immediately after the ministry of Amos, who prophesied only for two years.
Background: Though all was well in terms of prosperity and power, the spiritual decay, unethical social life, and unrighteous leaders and rulers were leading the nation towards a political collapse. Corrupt leadership, unstable family life, widespread immorality, class hatred, and poverty started creeping in during Hosea’s time. Thought people continued a form of worship, idolatry was more and more accepted and the priests were failing to guide the people into ways of righteousness. In spite of such dark period, Hosea holds out hope to inspire his people to turn back to God.
The nation had six kings within about 30 years, a period filled with intrigue and violence. Zechariah (753 b.c.) was murdered after only six months in power. The usurper, Shallum, was assassinated one month later. The next king, Menahem (752–742 b.c.) survived for a decade only by paying a burdensome tribute to Tiglath-pileser. His son, Pekahiah (742–740 b.c.), was assassinated by an army officer, Pekah (740–732), after only two years’ reign. Subsequently, Pekah was disposed of by Hoshea, whose rebellion against the Assyrians led to the end of the northern kingdom (732–722 b.c.).- ESV Study Bible.
Also, during this period, the thriving Assyrian kingdom was gaining momentum in the region. Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727) was on the rise, and followed by several capable kings who kept extending Assyrian Kingdom, having dominion over the entire Ancient Near East including Egypt.
Hosea’s primary audience was the people of Israel which mentioned as Ephraim for 30 times in the book. Hosea’s major concern was Baal. He understood Baal worship to be the reason for Israel’s dilemma.
1. Hosea frequently refers to the Pentateuch, the foundation of Israel’s relationship to God.
2. Hosea stresses divine sovereignty, with God speaking in the first person, “I,” almost a hundred times in the book.
3. Hosea’s personal biography exemplifies the Lord’s compassion (chs. 1–3).
4. Isolation/exile, which is coming upon Israel, is a means to restoration.
Jesus mentioned Hosea 6:6 in Matt. 9:13 & Matt. 12:7
Hosea 11:1 is a prophecy mentioned in Mathew 2:15
Hosea 14:2 is mentioned in Hebrew 13:15.
Hosea 1:6&9 is mentioned in 1 Peter 2:10
Hosea 13:14 is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:55
Hosea 2:19, 20 mentioned in Ephesians 5:25-32