Joab kills Abner. (22-27)

Vs. 22 & 25: Joab was not there during Abner’s visit to Hebron. When he learnt everything, he confronted David for sending him away. Abner came to deceive you… Joab used a common assumption. We can see how a spiritual person looks at things and move forward confidently and how an unspiritual person looks at things.
Vs. 26 & 27: Stabbed him… for the blood of Asahel his brother… Joab killed Abner not for his king but to take vengeance for his brother Asahel’s death.

David mourns for Abner. (28-39)

Vs. 28 – 30: Even though David knew that Joab’s action was not correct; he did not punish Joab by killing for many reasons.
1. A double killing around the king would be too much for Israel.
2. David could not expect the people to think the way he was thinking. It is normal for the people to think hostile about Abner since Abner was on the opposite camp.
3. There was no reason for the people to think that Joab really killed Abner as a vengeance to Asahel’s death.
4. My kingdom and I are guiltless of the blood of Abner (V. 28)… Let it rest on the head of Joab and on all his father’s house… David knew this act will draw the attention of God.

V. 31: David said to Joab…Tear your clothes, gird yourselves…and mourn for Abner: David turned this incident into a national mourning even by making Joab and his men to mourn for the one Joab killed. This incident probable, mad the whole nation to come together.
Vs. 32 – 34: king…lifted up his voice and wept at the grave…: David himself lead the mourning.
V. 35: David’s refusal to eat until dusk was understood by the people as this death of Abner was serious one.
V. 36: …whatever the king did pleased all the people…. This is a notable act of God’s blessing for David and for the progress of the nation.
V. 37:all people and all Israel understood that day… This mourning of David also made the people to understand that David had no hand in Abner’s death. This was necessary to gain the trust of the northern tribes.
V. 38…prince and a great man has fallen…: David did not consider Abner as an enemy and he did not consider the 10 tribes as his enemies. If Joab was important, then Abner also was equally important for the good future of the nation of Israel.
V. 39… I am weak today, though anointed king;…: Since Joab acted without David’s concern, David was shaken and counted himself practically weak. So, David refrained from acting against Joab and his brother. Joab was David his sister’s son and he was not appointed by David. He usually acted independently; thus the mention of “Joab and David’s men” (v. 22).


Ishbosheth murdered. (1-7)

V. 1 …lost heart…allIsrael was troubled. Since, Abner was the strongman of Israel, Ish-bosheth lost heart.
Vs. 2 & 3… Beeroth: Beeroth is located 2 miles south of Gibeon that was led by Gibeon, who tricked Joshua to make treaty with them (Joshua 9:17). So, these two captains (Baanah and Rechab) of Saul’s troops were not in alliance with David, but opportunists. All those who did evil to king Saul’s family were non-Israelites.
Vs. 5-7: Baanah and Rechab killed Ish-Bosheth in his bed room. Took his head and escaped to David.
V. 4: This is like an insert in this passage, giving some information about any remaining Saul’s household. “This information about Mephibosheth is probably put here to show why there was no move to make him king after Ish-bosheth’s death-he was still a child, and he was crippled. He is further mentioned in 9:1-3; 16:1-4, 19:24-29; and 21:7.” ESV study Bible.

David puts to death the murderers. (8-12)

A person may be glad to obtain his just wishes, and yet really regret the means by which he receives them. He may be sorry for the death of a person by which he is a gainer. These men shed innocent blood…. David justly executed vengeance upon them. God had helped him over many a difficulty, and through many a danger, therefore he depended upon God to crown and complete his own work. – Mathew Henry Concise Commentary

V. 8 Saul your enemy, who sought your life: David has not mentioned Saul as his enemy. A Godly and spiritual person will not consider calling any body as enemy. David appropriately practice Jesus teaching of “love your enemies…bless them those who persecute you.” But the ‘worldly’ and ‘fleshly’ will consider even some friends as enemies. David constantly rejected killing Saul.
Vs. 9-11: In David’s view, this act of killing Ish-bosheth amount to a violent murder against a defenseless man; thus warranted execution.
V. 12: Again, this act of executing these men would have convinced the people of Israel (northern tribes) about David’s friendliness towards them.

David king over all Israel. (1-5)

David was anointed king a third time. It is not clear how soon the events of chapter 5 followed the events of chapter 4. Since David ruled Judah for 7 years and six months and Ish-bosheth ruled the 11 tribes for two years, there was about 5 years gap between Ish-bosheth’s death and David’s crowning as the king of entire Israel.
David’s advances were gradual, that his faith might be tried, and that he might gain experience. Thus his kingdom typified that of the Messiah, which was to come to its height by degrees.