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David king over all Israel. (1-5)

David was anointed as king for the third time. It is not clear how soon the events of chapter 5 followed the events of chapter 4. Since David ruled Judah for 7 years and six months and Ish-bosheth ruled the 11 tribes for two years, there was about 5 years gap between Ish-bosheth’s death and David’s crowning as the king of entire Israel.
David’s advances were gradual, that his faith might be tried, and that he might gain experience. Thus his kingdom typified that of the Messiah, which was to come to its height by degrees.

He takes the strong-hold of Zion. (6-10)

The enemies of God’s people are often very confident of their own strength, and most secure when their day to fall draws nigh. But the pride and insolence of the Jebusites animated David, and the Lord God of hosts was with him. Thus in the day of God’s power, Satan’s strong-hold, the human heart, is changed into a habitation of God through the Spirit, and into a throne on which the Son of David rules, and brings every thought into obedience to himself. May He thus come, and claim, and cleanse, each of our hearts; and, destroying every idol, may He reign there forever! – Mathew Henry Commentary.

V. 6 …Jerusalem against the Jebusites:

The city of Jerusalem: Around 2000 B.C., Jerusalem was called as Salem (Gen. 14:18) , and Melchizedek was the king of that city.But during the time of conquest, we come across Jebusites. It was not clear if Melchizedek was a Jebusite. JEBUSITES were a Canaanite people, descended from Ham through Canaan. Ham was Noah’s son (Genesis 10:15-19). It is believed that Jebusite invaded Salem around 1850 B.C. and built a city wall around it and called it Jebus (1 Chro. 11:4). It was not taken neither by Judah (Joshua 15:63) nor by Benjamite (Judges 1:21).
V. 7 David took the stronghold of Zion: Zion is located on the western slope of the Kidron Valley above the city’s water source.

V. 9 City of David: David captured the fort and called it the City of David.

David’s kingdom established.(11-16)

V. 11 Hiram king of Tyre….built David a house…: This gift by king of Tyre is significant that David is not considered as a national king, not just a leader of a tribe. The same king of Tyre later provided Cedars to Solomon to build the Temple in Jerusalem.

V. 12 David knew that the LORD had established him…: The previous two incidents made David to realize that God has established him as the king of Israel.

V. 13-16 took more concubines and wives…more sons and daughters…: David started establishing his house according to how much he was established in the kingdom.

He defeats the Philistines. (17-25)

The Philistines had not considered that David had the presence of God with him, which Saul had forfeited and lost. When the anointing is finished and the time for Kingdom Work to start, the enemy invariably shows up.

V. 19 David inquired of the LORD…Go up…: David after inquiring of the LORD went ahead and defeated Philistines.

V. 21 Philistines left their images there…: This is a reversal of the previous war in 1 Samuel 4 during Eli’s time. There Israelites left the Ark of the Covenant in Philistine’s land.

Philistines repeated the war against Israel (23-25)

V. 23 David inquired of the LORD….Circle around behind them: This time God advised David not to go for a frontal attack but from rear at this time.

V. 24 Sound of marching….LORD will go out before you to strike…: This sound of marching is not simply wind blowing. This is a distinct sound caused by the LORD.

V. 25 …Geba as far as Gezer…: This is a distance of about 15 miles. This drove them out to a comfortable distance from the central hill country. We should never let the enemies wander in the hilly places, which has hiding places. Only, we should keep ourselves in such hiding places. If we let him stay in hilly places, certainly they are going to give us trouble often.