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David’s instructions to Solomon. (1-4):
Vs. 2-3: …Be strong, therefore, and prove yourself a man…David’s charge to Solomon is, to keep the charge of the Lord. God promised David that the Messiah should come from his descendants, and that promise was absolute; but the promise, that there should not fail of them a man on the throne of Israel, was conditional; if he walks before God in sincerity, with zeal and resolution; that is he must take heed to HIS way.
This passage reflects God’s command to Joshua who succeeded Moses to be the leader (Joshua 1:6-9). God asked Joshua to be obedient to Himself according to the Law of Moses. The true success, in God’s dictionary is always contingent on obedience to His Word.
V. 4… His Word which He spoke concerning me,…This reference is about 2 Samuel 7:1-16. Especially, 2 Sam. 7: 14&15 conveys us the message that wrongdoing on the part of David’s successors will not lead to the end of the dynasty. But till the end we see some sort of Chastisement of God coming upon Davidic dynasty whenever they disobeyed God.
David’s charge as to Joab and others. (5-12):
These dying counsels concerning Joab and Shimei, did not come from personal anger, but for the security of Solomon’s throne .
V. 5… What Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me,…
1. Joab shed the Innocent blood (v.31),
2. Joab shed the blood of war in the time of peace (v.5)
Why did David not concerned about this during his time and want Solomon to get rid of him?
1. Since David’s reign was filled with wars and bloodshed whereas Solomon period was era of peace. So Solomon can’t afford to have a man who would shed blood in the time of peace.
2. Probably David knew how to handle those people.
3. Joab and Simei, in a way, would have been hostile people to harmony. Joab was more of Judean the southerner, and Simei was more of Israelite northerner.
V.7…. Barzilla the Gileadite… Barzilla is from Transjordon region who came and stood with David. Thus he was a great model for dutiful and faithful ones to the king.
V.10…. David rested with his fathers… Terms like ‘rested’ and ‘slept’ support the belief of resurrection of the dead in the OT. City of David…This has become like a royal graveyard.
V.11…. David reigned over Isreal was forty years;… David reigned Judah for seven years from Hebron, and he ruled the unified Israel from Jerusalem for 33 years.
V.12…. kingdom was firmly established… firmly established means strategically positioned at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end.
Solomon reigns, Adonijah aspiring to the throne is put to death. (13-25):
V.17…. he may give me Abishag the Shunammite as wife…
Second Samuel 16:20–22 suggests that sexual liaison with the king’s concubines amounted to a claim to the throne; and although Abishag was not strictly a concubine, she was intimately associated in people’s minds with David. Certainly Solomon appears to interpret Adonijah’s request as a revival of the conspiracy of 1 Kings 1—as precisely the “wickedness” against which Solomon had warned him in 1:52 (cf. 2:22). ESV Study Bible.
V.25…. Benaiah…struck him down, and he died… Benaiah killed Adonijah.
Abiathar banished, Joab put to death. (26-34):
Vs.26-27…. Abiathar’s life was spared but was banished and banned from Jerusalem.
V.27…. removed Abiathar….that he might fulfill the word of the LORD which He spoke concerning the house of Eli at Shiloh… the book of Kings has fulfillment of some prophecies that were spoken earlier. The prophecy about Eil’s household is found in 1 Sam 2:35.
Vs.28-34…. Against the expectation of grace from the king, Joab was ordered to be killed by Benaiah (34).